What were the causes and some of the consequences of the Crusading movement? Consider the roles and the motivations of the Byzantine Emperor, Pope Urban II, European monarchs and the individuals (mainly European knights) who participated. Did the Crusades achieve the intended result, or not? If not, what did they achieve? If you like, you may limit your answer to the First through Fourth Crusades; but additional remarks about the “World of the Crusades” are also welcome.